A web server will typically run as a daemon (system service) under a single application process. That initial process will then spawn child processes that handle virtual servers, individual websites, or even individual requests. As such, a web server could spawn hundreds or even thousands of processes per day, per hour, or even […]
Archive for the 'Server Software' Category
Once you have chosen an operating system, setup some basic security, and decided on a web-based control panel, you will need to decide what software you will run on your server. Some control panels will install your software for you, but it may be worth it to choose one that is right for your […]
Netcraft publishes a list of the web’s most widely used web server software every month. Here is a brief look at each of those top web servers and what they can do.
Microsoft IIS (37% market share) – Microsoft Internet Information Services is the web server designed specifically for Microsoft Windows Server operating […]
As you enter the world of server management, you are likely going to encounter free and open source software. Even a Windows system administrator these days will likely have to at least run Linux in a virtual machine at some point. Therefore, having a little background knowledge on how Linux and other open source software […]
While learning to use a Linux or BSD dedicated server, you are likely to encounter the terms binary and source software packages. Depending on your actual operating system, it may use one, the other or both as default methods of software installation.
A source package is a file archive that contains the full source code of […]
In our last post, we looked at 5 Linux commands (technically six) that are invaluable to any new system administrator. The following are a few more, some of which are critical to know.
cat – This is a unique program that allows you to combine multiple files or parts into a whole. It can also print […]
In the previous 3 posts, we have covered several Linux terms that you should know when getting started managing a Linux server. What follows are some actual commands that will help you as you begin your journey.
cd – Probably the command you will use most frequently, “cd” stands for “change directory”. From the command […]
Most small and medium web businesses turn to cPanel or another commercial control panel when they want GUI management of their servers. But not everyone can afford the licensing fees, and some people just want a free and open source alternative. The first that probably comes to mind is Webmin, but it is no longer […]
SSH (Secure Shell) is a powerful command-line tool that allows you to securely manage your dedicated server from a remote location. If you have more than one server, however, it can become tedious to have to SSH into each one and make identical changes.
Cluster SSH is a software utility that gives you […]
Have you ever found yourself in a situation that required you to find out some information about your server’s hardware and did not have the documentation handy? In some cases, the documentation may even be too generic, covering multiple models. In such a circumstance, you can either crack open the server and take a peek […]
Your dedicated server has lots of logs. Almost every service and program running on a Linux or Unix server has a log file associated with it that includes relevant information about processes, errors and warnings. Sifting through all of those logs can be a pain, especially if you need to review old logs or compare […]
Top shows you a great deal of information about the top running programs on your server, load averages, memory usage and more. Now imagine Top a little more colorful with some graphical representations of CPU, memory and swap usage, and a full range of shortcuts and functions that can help you manage tasks and find […]
When managing your Linux server, you may encounter lag or other performance issues that lead you to question what files your server might be accessing at a given time. Or you might just want to run routine diagnostics to make sure your server is only running and manage files that it is supposed to run. […]
We have previously illustrated how to compile a program with Make. In this brief guide, you will learn a little bit about building with CMake, a useful alternative found in many Linux distributions.
First, you should install CMake on your system, if it is not already present. On RHEL and CentOS, type:
If you spend enough time around Debian and Ubuntu folks, you are sure to see someone praising the benefits of Aptitude over Apt-Get for package management. Aptitude, which has both an n-curses semi-graphical version and a command-line version, is superior according to some, but there are plenty who still prefer apt-get. What follows are some […]
Probably the first Linux tool you think of when you want to monitor CPU usage is “top”. Top is light and gives you a good glimpse of processes that are consuming processing power. One thing top will not do by default, however, is show you how each processor is working and how much of their […]
Most Linux items that need backing up are stored in user home directories. This usually includes virtual web server directories as well, depending on the web server and settings you are using. One exception to this rule is configuration files. These are stored in /etc and other places. When it comes time to backup, many […]
Softaculous is a handy add-on for cPanel that gives your users the ability to quickly and nearly effortlessly install web application scripts. You can administer it through WHM, but once it is installed, any of your cPanel users can do one-click script installations. Installing Softaculous is relatively easy. Just follow these steps.
First, you should make […]
There is certainly no shortage of system monitoring tools for Linux. If you are the type who likes to know exactly what is going on with your server, Linux is probably ideal for you. Many of these tools are very specific, focusing on one or two aspects like CPU, Memory or Disk usage. Others cover […]
You do not have to pay big money to stream video or audio over the Internet. If you already have a dedicated server or VPS, you can use VLC to stream media to your users.
VLC is a free and open source video player and streaming media server. On the client side, you can use it […]
Many Linux operating systems offer the ability to upgrade to a new version of the OS without wiping the hard drive and reinstalling. On a dedicated server, you might call this an in-box upgrade. Generally, a new version of your Linux distribution will include a newer kernel version and newer software. Is such an upgrade […]
When something is nagging your CPU or chugging lots of RAM, many system administrators turn to a Linux/Unix tool called “top”. But what can you use to identify a program that is doing more than its fair share of hard disk drive reading and writing? For that, you need a program called iotop.
Iotop is […]
It is very likely in today’s multi-platform landscape that you may encounter a situation where you have a Linux server running alongside Windows servers or Windows workstations. If you ever want users to interact with the Linux server, for example for backup and storage purposes, you will need to setup some form of interoperability. Samba […]
In part one, we looked at some of the bare essentials for getting started with your new server. The following are a few others that are sometimes essential, depending on what you want to do.
Server-side Scripting – If you are going to run dynamic websites, which you almost certainly will, you will need some type […]
Once you have deployed and booted up your first Linux server, you may suddenly find yourself in an awkward situation where you are unsure what to do next. There are so many options and so many ways to configure it that you might feel overwhelmed. The following tools are essentials for getting started with a […]
One of the very useful features of cPanel’s WebHost Manager (WHM) is the ability to control user quotas, the amount of disk space allotted to a given user account. Once an account reaches its disk quota, no more files can be added.
To modify an account’s quota, navigate WHM to Home >> Account Functions >> Quota […]
There may be times when you want to send a message to your server users that they all can see when they log in. While “wall” allows you to send messages to currently logged in users, you need a different tool to make sure all users get it whenever they happen to log […]
Any good system administrator needs to be able to send authoritative messages to any online users. Fortunately, with BSD variants such as FreeBSD and OpenBSD, it is very easy with a tool called “wall”.
To send a general message to all users logged into the system, follow this format:
your message here
more of your message
At the […]
It does not take much for a web server to get overwhelmed when you have high traffic websites. Although you could always purchase more expensive hardware and networking equipment, there are more cost-effective ways to get better performance and get the most out of what you have. One such method is to use a web […]