Important Directories in Linux

Early this week, we briefly covered Linux partitions and their importance. It is also important to know the directories that make up the Linux file system when using a Linux dedicated server. What follows is a very brief guide to some of the most crucial directories. You will notice that, unlike Windows, Linux directories have forward slashes (/) rather than backwards slashes (\).

/ The root directory. All other directories are under this one.

/boot The kernel image, bootloader, and are stored here.

/etc Many of Linux’s configuration files, including kernel module configuration.

/bin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin Any of these “bin” directories will hold executable binaries (i.e. program commands).

/usr This holds most user applications, documentations, graphics, etc.

/lib, /usr/lib Important system libraries are stored here.

/root The system administrator’s home directory.

/home All other home directories for all users are here. For example, a user’s home directory might be /home/user.

/var Variable data, such as mail spools, log files, etc.

/tmp Temporary files created and used by applications.

/dev Devices are setup in this directory.

/mnt Mount points for filesystems, whether physical or virtual.

/proc This is a virtual directory which contains information about the kernel

/lost+found Files that might have been recovered after a bad shutdown or other event might show up in the lost and found.

These are the most crucial directories in a Linux filesystem. Each of them may hold numerous sub-directories with specific functions. In future posts, we will explore some of these directories in more depth.