Early this week, we briefly covered Linux partitions and their importance. It is also important to know the directories that make up the Linux file system when using a Linux dedicated server. What follows is a very brief guide to some of the most crucial directories. You will notice that, unlike Windows, Linux directories have forward slashes (/) rather than backwards slashes (\).
/ The root directory. All other directories are under this one.
/boot The kernel image, bootloader, and are stored here.
/etc Many of Linux’s configuration files, including kernel module configuration.
/bin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin Any of these “bin” directories will hold executable binaries (i.e. program commands).
/usr This holds most user applications, documentations, graphics, etc.
/lib, /usr/lib Important system libraries are stored here.
/root The system administrator’s home directory.
/home All other home directories for all users are here. For example, a user’s home directory might be /home/user.
/var Variable data, such as mail spools, log files, etc.
/tmp Temporary files created and used by applications.
/dev Devices are setup in this directory.
/mnt Mount points for filesystems, whether physical or virtual.
/proc This is a virtual directory which contains information about the kernel
/lost+found Files that might have been recovered after a bad shutdown or other event might show up in the lost and found.
These are the most crucial directories in a Linux filesystem. Each of them may hold numerous sub-directories with specific functions. In future posts, we will explore some of these directories in more depth.