Server Architecture: Past, Present, and Future – Part 1

Servers have evolved significantly over the past three decades. At one time, a single server filed an entire room, required its own cooling system, and had processors that ran slower than many of today’s mobile phones. Today, servers are smaller, faster, and more energy efficient, but the most important element is still the processor.

Because server technology is constantly evolving, it is important to know the history of server processors, how they came to be, and where they are headed. Microprocessors have evolved from single-core, inefficient chips to multi-core powerful multi-taskers with on-chip cache and incredible speed.

Brief Processor History

Early server processors were primarily RISC (reduced instruction set computing) chips, dating back to 1964. By the standards of the time, these processors were extremely fast and revolutionary.

Later RISC-based processors would include IBM’s PowerPC chips and Sun Microsystem’s SPARC. For several decades (from the 80s until present) these chips have powered many of the world’s servers.

Intel’s 8086 processor introduced a new type of chip architecture, which would come to be known as x86. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as Intel’s first 16-bit processor. That first chip had a maximum CPU clock of 10 MHz. Although most people think of these processors as being designed primarily for desktop computers, the 16-bit and later 32-bit versions have both powered a multitude of small and large servers.


How to Add/Remove Yum Repositories

Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Fedora and other Linux distributions based on RHEL all use YUM as a package management system to install, remove, and update software. Each distribution has its own main repository, but you can also install or remove third-party repositories whenever you like.

To add a YUM repository, type as root:

yum-config-manager –add-repo repository_url

For example:

yum-config-manager –add-repo

And the output will look like:

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

adding repo from:

grabbing file to /etc/yum.repos.d/serverschool.repo

serverschool.repo | 413 B 00:00

repo saved to /etc/yum.repos.d/serverschool.repo

You can then enable the repository with:

yum-config-manager –enable serverschool

To disable a respository:

yum-config-manager disable serverschool

For more information about repository management with YUM, see this Red Hat documentation.


How to Add and Remove APT Repositories

Ubuntu based Linux distributions rely on a program called APT to handle package management. Using the command “apt-get”, you can install, remove and update other programs. The packages installed with APT are determined by software repositories, and while every Linux distribution has default repositories, you can also add or remove third-party sources.

To add a Personal Package Archive (PPA) to your Ubuntu server or virtual private server (VPS), run this command:

sudo add-apt-repository [ppa name]

For example, if the PPA is ppa:server/school, you would type:

sudo add-apt-repository pp:server/school

The output will look like this:

tavis@serverschool:~$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:server/school

[sudo] password for tavis:

Server school is a fake program I made up for the purposes of this article

More info:

Press [ENTER] to continue or ctrl-c to cancel adding it

…followed by gpg information

Then, to refresh the repository list, you need to run:

sudo apt-get update

Finally, install the software you wanted:

sudo apt-get install server-school

To remove a PPA, you can use a similar command structure:

sudo add-apt-repository –remove [ppa name]

So, to remove the server school repository, you would type:

sudo add-apt-repository –remove ppa:server/school

As with any third-party software, be careful when adding PPAs, especially from sources you do not fully trust. If you are unsure about a PPA, it is best to leave it off of your server.

How to Add and Remove APT Repositories
Ubuntu based Linux distributions rely on a program called APT to handle package management. Using the command “apt-get”, you can install, remove and update other programs. The packages installed with APT are determined by software repositories, and while every Linux distribution has default repositories, you can also add or remove third-party sources.
To add a Personal Package Archive (PPA) to your Ubuntu server or virtual private server (VPS), run this command:
sudo add-apt-repository [ppa name]
For example, if the PPA is ppa:server/school, you would type:
sudo add-apt-repository pp:server/school
The output will look like this:
tavis@serverschool:~$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:server/school
[sudo] password for tavis:
Server school is a fake program I made up for the purposes of this article
More info:
Press [ENTER] to continue or ctrl-c to cancel adding it
…followed by gpg information
Then, to refresh the repository list, you need to run:
sudo apt-get update
Finally, install the software you wanted:
sudo apt-get install server-school
To remove a PPA, you can use a similar command structure:
sudo add-apt-repository –remove [ppa name]
So, to remove the server school repository, you would type:
sudo add-apt-repository –remove ppa:server/school
As with any third-party software, be careful when adding PPAs, especially from sources you do not fully trust. If you are unsure about a PPA, it is best to leave it off of your server.

Top Web Server Software for Dedicated Servers

Netcraft publishes a list of the web’s most widely used web server software every month. Here is a brief look at each of those top web servers and what they can do.

Microsoft IIS (37% market share) – Microsoft Internet Information Services is the web server designed specifically for Microsoft Windows Server operating systems. It has recently gained popularity due to Windows Azure cloud services and is now the most widely used web server on the web. It is proprietary and requires a license for Windows to legally run.

Apache HTTP Server (35% market share) – Apache enjoyed the top spot for most used web server for over a decade, but that reign has come to an end. The free and open source web server software is available for installation on most Linux distributions, BSD, variants of Unix and even Windows.

Nginx (14% market share) – Nginx is known for being a high-performance web server that can handle high load and traffic. Many extremely popular websites with millions of daily visitors depend on it. It is now the third most popular web server and continues to chip away at Apache’s #2 spot. Like Apache, it is also free and open source.

There are a number of other web servers that make up a considerable percentage of the web, including Google’s own custom web server, but since these are not available to the public, we have not included them.

Understanding Systemd and How to Use It: Part 2

In part one, you learned a little about what systemd is and which Linux distributions plan to use it. In part 2, you will learn how to use systemd to start and stop services. We will use Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS and Fedora in the explanation, but most of it will apply to other distributions that use systemd as well.

With the old init system, you could use the “service” command to start and stop services. For example, to restart Apache, you would type from the command line:

service httpd restart

The more direct way of doing it was to find the actual init script in /etc/rc.d/init.d and restart it using that script. The service command has now been replaced by the systemctl command. For now, you can still use the “service” command, and the OS will just remind you that it is no longer the standard way.

[root@serverschool ~]# service sshd restart

Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart sshd.service

Service scripts now have the “.service” extension, and you can use them by executing the systemctl command:

systemctl restart httpd.service

The important thing to note is that the action is now listed before the script. You would type “start httpd.service” rather than typing “httpd start”.

For more information about the systemctl command, see this documentation.

Understanding Systemd and How to Use It: Part 1

Systemd has gradually made a name for itself in the Linux world and is or will eventually be the default service management system for a number of major Linux distributions. Those accustomed to the old init systems will not find Systemd to be horribly complex, but it does feature some significantly different approaches to service starting and management.

Systemd runs as a daemon, hence the “d” at the end of the name. It manages all other daemons from boot to shutdown. Rather than using a shell script to initialize each daemon, Systemd relies on a declarative configuration file. It also is capable of starting processes concurrently, allowing for faster boot times.

While Systemd has found a home in numerous Linux distributions, it is not without its detractors, including Linux creator Linus Torvalds and Slackware founder Patrick Volkerding over the way development is being handled and the use of config files rather than shell scripts. Despite this, Fedora, Arch Linux, CoreOS, openSUSE, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and CentOS all use it by default, with Debian and Ubuntu planning to do the same. Therefore, it is a good idea to learn how to use it, and part 2 of this introduction will start you on that journey.


How to Configure Linux Password Policies

One of your best weapons in the fight for server security is strong password management. Using the password policies you set in Linux, you enforce strong passwords, require password renewals and many other effective security measures.

First, you should install the cracklib module for PAM. Cracklib tests password strength. If you are using RHEL, CentOS or Fedora, it is installed by default. You can find password security options in /etc/pam.d

To set the minimum password length, edit /etc/pam.d/system-auth on Red Hat distributions or /etc/pam.d/common-password on Debian distros. The length setting will look something like this:

password requisite retry=3 minlen=8 difok=3

Where minlen is the length in characters. In this example, the minimum length is 8 characters. The “difok” setting specifies the number of characters that must be different from the previous password.

Next, you can set password complexity in a line that contains “password” and “”. It will look like this:

password requisite retry=3 minlen=10 difok=3 ucredit=-1 lcredit=-2 dcredit=-1 ocredit=-1

“ucredit” is the number of uppercase letters. “lcredit” is the number of lowercase letters. “dcredit” is the number of numerals, and “ocredit” is the number of symbols.

For more on PAM and all that it can do to manage your passwords, see the online documentation.



4 Common Open Source Licenses

As you enter the world of server management, you are likely going to encounter free and open source software. Even a Windows system administrator these days will likely have to at least run Linux in a virtual machine at some point. Therefore, having a little background knowledge on how Linux and other open source software differs from proprietary software can be useful.

The following are 4 common open source licenses:

1. GNU GPL – Perhaps the most widely used, the GPL is also the most strict. While it allows anyone to freely use, download, distribute, modify or even sell the software, it also strictly requires that any redistribution carries the same license. Linux is famously licensed under GPL v2.

2. BSD – This type of license is considered more permissive. With it, you can essentially create a proprietary version of the software after you have performed your modifications. You are not required to release anything under the same license.

3. Apache – Similar to the BSD license, Apache allows for releasing your changes to the code under a difference license. It provides some additional legal information about copyrights, trademarks and patents that the BSD license does not explicitly mention.

4. GNU LGPL – Designed as a compromise for linking non-GPL libraries, the LGPL allows for linking with code that has a different license, but like the GPL itself, the code licensed under it must be re-released under the same license.


5 Signs You Need a Managed Server

Unmanaged servers are available all over the web for lease. They are cheap, rapidly deployed and usually connected to very fast networks inside of secure data centers. Nevertheless, an unmanaged server is not for everyone. Here are five signs you need a managed server rather than an unmanaged one.

  1. Your frustration level has reached an all-time high, and you are finding it difficult to setup server applications and troubleshoot problems.
  2. You want to spend more time on your business and less time on the technology that powers it.
  3. You have suffered some serious security issues and do not know how to fix them or prevent them from happening again in the future.
  4. You have operational expenditure that you can afford to spend on server management and find that cheaper than having full-time IT staff to make sure your server keeps running smoothly.
  5. You simply do not have the time to manage your server by yourself.

Manging your own server can be difficult, time consuming and ultimately expensive if you have to hire staff to take care of it. On the other hand, it might be worth the extra money to have a managed server and not have to spend time dealing with technical issues.


Send System Messages to Server Users

If your server has multiple users, you might want an easy way to send messages to them and make sure they receive them. The best way to do that is to send it right in the console. One tool you can use to do just that is “wall”. With it, you can send messages to all logged in users at once, and unless they have specifically disabled it, they will receive it.

To send a message to logged in users, type wall, press Enter, type the message you want to send and finally press CTRL+D. For example, to send a test message:

# wall

This is a test message



Broadcast Message from tavis@serverschool

(/dev/pts/2) at 20:35 …

This is a test message

If you do not want the “broadcast message” banner, simply use the “-n” option. This message will reach all users. It is particularly helpful if you want to tell them the server will be unavailable shortly due to maintenance.

# wall

This server will be unavailable in 5 minutes do to scheduled maintenance. Please save your work and log out.

For more information about wall, type “man wall” from the command line.

Is Mac OS X Good for Servers?

When you think of Mac OS X, you probably tend to think of various iTunes, graphic design, music production and other artsy activities. It is primarily a desktop operating system, but Apple does sell a server add-on for its OS. The question is: Is that server version useful for real-world server operations?

Some of the advantages of OS X server include:

  • Ease of administration – Like many Apple products, it is designed to be relatively easy. It includes graphical administration tools and easy setup of client systems.
  • Low cost – Although it is obviously more expensive than a free Linux distribution, it is still less expensive than Windows Server or a commercial Unix license.
  • Unix strength – Underneath, OS X Server includes many Unix-like tools that give it a surprising amount of power.

Some of the disadvantages are:

  • Not an enterprise OS – Do not expect to easily deploy a cluster of OS X servers. It is not built like an enterprise OS and does not include many of the tools you might want if you were to think big.
  • Hardware – OS X Server supports Apple hardware, which is more costly and difficult to support than alternatives.
  • Vendor lock-in – If you build your server on OS X, you are locked into the hardware and software. As with any proprietary OS, you give up the freedom to easily migrate to something else.

OS X Server has its pros and cons. Ultimately, if have a specialized product involving Apple systems, it might make sense. For web hosting or large scale enterprise, you will probably want to look elsewhere.

What is a Journaling File system

As we discussed in a previous post, Linux servers offer many different types of file systems, and every other server operating system also offers a choice of file systems. One type of file system you might encounter is called a journaling file system. What is it and how does it differ from a standard Linux file system?

A journaling file system is designed to protect against data loss by recording disk transactions to a log in case of system failure. Upon reboot, the file system normally compares the log to the actual files and corrects any discrepancies. Without this type of journaling in place, a single crash could cause disk corruption.

The old default Linux file system, Ext2, did not have journaling. Newer Linux file systems such as Ext3 and Ext4 use journaling. XFS supports journaling as well. Similarly, older Windows file systems, such as FAT and FAT32 do not support journaling, whereas NTFS does.

The main disadvantage of a journaling file system is that it involves more disk accessing than other file systems. This theoretically could make them slower, but with many modern disks and file systems, you might not notice a difference. There is also some debate about how to use journaling with solid state drives (SSD) or even if one should use them at all.

For more information about journaling file systems, see this article.

What are binary and source packages?

While learning to use a Linux or BSD dedicated server, you are likely to encounter the terms binary and source software packages. Depending on your actual operating system, it may use one, the other or both as default methods of software installation.

A source package is a file archive that contains the full source code of a given software. In order to install that software, you would need to unpack that archive and build the software from source using whatever required building tools are necessary (i.e. make, cmake, or others).

Some operating systems, such as Gentoo or FreeBSD, will also provide package repositories that allow you to automatically build software from source. The advantage is that programs built from source are usually better optimized for your architecture and settings.

A binary package is one that is pre-compiled and built to general specifications that should be compatible with your OS and architecture but that may not be tailored to meet your specific settings. Most Linux distributions include binary package repositories that make installation easy. Binary packages require dependencies to match the specifications spelled out when the packages were originally built. Therefore, installing them manually can sometimes be a pain. When using a repository, however, they are easy to install and much faster than building from source.

Differences Between Windows and Linux Servers

Linux is the kernel for many free and open source operating systems. Windows is a proprietary and commercial operating system, but there are many other differences between the two. When you are choosing an OS to run on your server, it is important to know some of the technical differences as well.

1. Access – Linux servers are almost always headless, meaning there is no graphical interface. Management is performed locally from the console or remotely via SSH. Windows systems are normally not headless, although it is possible. You can typically access Windows via the graphical interface and remotely through the Server Core via MMC, TS RemoteApp Terminal Services, or Remote Shell.

2. Software – On Linux you normally install software via a package management system with local or remote software repositories. You can also install binary files manually or compile source code. On Windows, your would primarily manually install binary software.

3. Web server and applications – The default web server software for Windows is Internet Information Services (IIS). It is generally the only web server designed to run the ASP.NET web application framework. Therefore, if you want to use ASP.NET, you should use a Windows server. Linux may run any number of web servers, and the default one installed may depend on your distribution. Apache HTTP Server and Nginx are among the most popular. Windows can also run other web servers, though not with official support.

These are just some surface differences between Windows and Linux. There are many others that will will explore in part 2 of this introduction.

Common Linux Commands You Should Know: Part 2

In our last post, we looked at 5 Linux commands (technically six) that are invaluable to any new system administrator. The following are a few more, some of which are critical to know.

cat – This is a unique program that allows you to combine multiple files or parts into a whole. It can also print the contents of those files to the screen or to the location you specify.

crontab – Use crontab to view, create and manipulate cron jobs for your server, which allow you to automate other commands, services, scripts and more.

ps – With this command you can list running processes, sort them the way you want and get detailed information about each process, the user running it and the location of the program that initiated it.

top – Top reveals a plethora of information relevant to system performance, including memory usage, CPU usage, load average and others. It will also reveal the top running processes that consume the most CPU, memory, etc.

cp – This command allows you to copy files and directories with many options and configurations.

rm – Remove files from your server with this command and its numerous options.

Knowing Linux commands allows you to communicate with your server, both to gather information and to take action. The more commands you know and better understanding of them you have, the better your control will be over your server’s performance and security.

Common Linux Commands You Should Know

In the previous 3 posts, we have covered several Linux terms that you should know when getting started managing a Linux server. What follows are some actual commands that will help you as you begin your journey.

cd – Probably the command you will use most frequently, “cd” stands for “change directory”. From the command line interface (CLI), it is the only effective way to navigate through your filesystem.

ls – Another frequently used one, ls tells Linux to list the files in a directory.

chmod – Permissions are very important for access control and security, and chmod is the command you use to actually change those permissions.

sudo or su – Depending on your distribution, you might use one or the other. Both essentially do the same thing, elevate your system priveleges to the level you specify, usually Root (administrator or super user).

touch – This is a quick way to create an empty file. Simply type “touch” followed by the filename. You can later edit the file and put whatever you want in it.

We will cover several more commands in part 2 of this series, some of which are critical to your server’s performance and stability.

Linux/Unix Terms You Should Know: Part 3

Part of the learning curve of a new Linux server is learning all of the terminology. You might not be familiar with some of them even if you have experiencing working on other operating systems. In part 3, we will look at some more of these terms.

daemon – This is a program that is often started at boot time and continues to run on the system in the background. Another term for a daemon is a service. If a daemon is not started at boot, you can usually still start or stop it on demand. Some daemons may include the web server, database server and DNS server.

hostname – This is the formal name of the server that designates how it will be recognized on the network. Every server has a hostname, and it will generally be a unique name on that network. For internet-connected servers, their hostnames will be part of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).

kill – In part 2, you learned about processes. In the event that you need to stop an unresponsive process, the “kill” command can handle that. In general, killing a process involves typing “kill” followed by the process identification number (PID). If you need to kill a process based on the name and are not worried about killing any processes associated with it, use “killall”.
In part 4, we will explore some common Linux commands that you will likely need to know when you start work on your sever.

Linux/Unix Terms You Should Know: Part 2

In part one, we looked at some of the important terms a new system administrator should know when starting work on a Linux server. These next terms are equally important and will help you along the way as you begin to learn more about your server.

man – This command, short for manual, gives you access to documentation about any other command on your Linux server. For example, to learn about the command “ls”, simply type “man ls”, and it will display the command’s complete documentation, which you can scroll through and read.

permissions – Linux and Unix file systems have basic sets of permissions for all files and directories. Every file is owned by a user, and every file has a set of permissions determining which users can read, write, and/or execute them.

process – A process is a program or portion of a program that is currently running in the memory. A process can also spawn another process called a child process. For example, your Apache web server may be configured to spawn child processes for each unique access of its websites.

In part three of this series, we will explore even more in-depth terms that you should definitely know when diving into the world of dedicated servers.

Common Linux Terms Every SysAdmin Should Know: Part 1

A large percentage of the world’s servers run Linux, so it is a good idea to know some of the common terms you might encounter while using it. The following terms are a good starting point.

Command Line Interface (CLI) – On the server end, this is the main method of interfacing you will use to interact with your server. Unlike a graphical user interface (GUI), there is nothing to point, click or drag. You get a flashing cursor and the ability to type in commands.

Filesystem – This term is used to describe the system used to organize, access, create and delete files. Common Linux filesystems include Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, ReiserFS (nearly defunct now), XFS and JFS. Choosing a good filesystem for your server is very important for stability and effective storage.

GRUB – GNU GRand Unified Bootloader is what your server needs to properly boot a Linux kernel. It also allows you to configure a wide range of boot options that can both help or hinder a system. Therefore, it is a good idea to know exactly what you are doing before messing with GRUB’s configuration.

In part two, we will look at more common Linux terms that you should definitely know when you become a system administrator.

Know Your SQL Databases

Relational database management systems (RDMS) are very popular in the web hosting world. While non-relational databases, often called NoSQL, may be gaining popularity, most small, medium and even still some large websites rely on SQL technology. This is just a brief intro to the various brands of SQL out there.

MySQL – One of the older versions on the market, MySQL is both free and open source as well as commercial. It has gone through the hands of more than one vendor, including Sun Microsystems and now Oracle.

MariaDB – After Oracle purchased Sun, the original MySQL creator made MariaDB as a fork of the original project. It is open source and managed by the MariaDB Foundation.

PostgreSQL – An object-relational database management system, PostgreSQL is one of, if not the oldest. Like the others, it is free and open source. It is also known to work on a variety of platforms, including Windows.

SQLite – Unlike the others on the list, SQLite does not require a database server. Instead, it is embedded, allowing it to run with very little software. It is only 658 KiB, and is released to the public domain with no software license.

MSSQL – Completely proprietary and commercial, Microsoft SQL Server is the company’s answer to its open source competitors. Designed specifically for Windows Server, it supports Microsoft’s business applications, its cloud infrastructure and even web server offerings.

The database system you choose depends entirely on your licensing requirements and the type of work you want to do. The best choice for you may not work at all for others.

How to Manage Linux Kernel Modules

Linux is the kernel for a variety of operating systems that power many of the world’s servers. Although the operating systems themselves are often commonly called Linux, the actual term refers specifically to this kernel and all of its parts. In addition to the components that are compiled into the kernel, Linux also supports modules that can be loaded or unloaded on demand.

Linux modules are useful for hardware drivers, network interfaces and much more. To find out which modules are running on your system, type from the command line as root:

# lsmod

The output might look something like this:

iptable_filter 12810 0

ip_tables 27239 1 iptable_filter

x_tables 34059 2 ip_tables,iptable_filter

kvm_intel 138567 0

kvm 431754 1 kvm_intel

ppdev 17671 0

binfmt_misc 17468 1

microcode 23656 0

psmouse 97655 0

serio_raw 13413 0

parport_pc 32701 0

parport 42299 2 ppdev,parport_pc

floppy 69370 0

The first column lists the module name. For example, kvm is Linux’s virtualization module. The second column is the size of the module, and the third column tells if the module is being used by another module. In the case of kvm, it depends on kvm_intel.

To find out more about a module, run modinfo [modulename]. For example:

# modinfo kvm

The output will resemble this:

filename: /lib/modules/3.11.0-19-generic/kernel/arch/x86/kvm/kvm.ko

license: GPL

author: Name

srcversion: ****


intree: Y

vermagic: 3.11.0-19-generic SMP mod_unload modversions

parm: ****

To load a module into the kernel, type modprobe [modulename]. For example:

# modprobe kvm

To remove a module, type rmmod [modulename]. For example:

#rmmod kvm

Linux kernel modules make it easy to load and unload components and drivers without having to reboot or reconfigure software. You can learn more about module management at

Ajenti: Free and Open Source Alternative Control Panel

Most small and medium web businesses turn to cPanel or another commercial control panel when they want GUI management of their servers. But not everyone can afford the licensing fees, and some people just want a free and open source alternative. The first that probably comes to mind is Webmin, but it is no longer the only free alternative control panel out there. Ajenti is a free and open source panel that works with both Ngnix and Apache.

Ajenti is available for Debian, Ubuntu, RHEL, CentOS and FreeBSD. It features a fully-integrated control panel with dashboard, firewall, file manager, services manager and much more. You can view logs, processes, cron jobs, users and tasks.

Some of the selling points of Ajenti are that it comes with several plugins for various software integration and management, and it is also extensible, using Python for development of addons. Moreover, it preserves the structure of your server’s configuration, meaning you do not need a modified system to install it or run it.

Ajenti is free and open source and available for free download and installation immediately. You can also contribute to the project on GitHub.

Manage Multiple Servers Simultaneously with Cluster SSH

SSH (Secure Shell) is a powerful command-line tool that allows you to securely manage your dedicated server from a remote location. If you have more than one server, however, it can become tedious to have to SSH into each one and make identical changes.

Cluster SSH is a software utility that gives you the ability to simultaneously open SSH terminals, connect to multiple servers, and run identical commands, essentially keeping the servers in sync. This is particularly useful for server clusters where the individual servers are actually nodes for the larger system.

With Cluster SSH, you will have an extra console that controls all of the other terminal windows. If you ever need to run a command on only one of the servers, just type directly into that server’s window or temporarily disable replication.

The command to use Cluster SSH is “cssh”. To connect to three servers, for example, you would enter cssh followed by the hostnames of the three servers:

cssh server1 server2 server3

Three console windows will open, one for each server, and then a smaller console window will open where you can type the global commands. It works by controlling xterm windows in a Linux/Unix environment. Therefore, Cluster SSH is not available for Windows, except through virtualization. It does, however, support Linux, BSD, Solaris, and Mac OS X. Cluster SSH is free and open source software, available for free download.

How to Remove Old Linux Kernels

Linux distributions that use binary packages usually install kernel updates in separate directories from previous kernel versions. Therefore, it is possible to have several instances of Linux installed within the same system. This is a precaution that prevents you from overwriting your kernel with one that may not function the way you want, or at all.

On CentOS, it is a good idea to install new kernels and test them to make sure they work before doing anything to the old kernels. After you have confirmed that your current kernel is the one you want to keep, you can then take steps to remove the old ones. Follow these steps to remove old kernels.

  1. Before proceeding, find out your current kernel version:
    uname -r
    The output will look like this
  2. Find out the names of all kernels currently installed:
    rpm -q kernel
    The output will look like this:
  3. Remove the old kernels
    rpm -e kernel-2.6.12-1.el5

Perform #3 for all old kernels until they are all gone. Warning: Be extra careful and make sure you do not remove the current kernel. That is why you ran “uname”, to see which kernel is the current default. If you run into any trouble, you should always have at least one kernel remaining that will allow your system to still boot. If you are unsure about this process, just leave it alone. Your system will still function just fine, even with old kernels still installed.


How to View Hardware Information on a Linux Server

Have you ever found yourself in a situation that required you to find out some information about your server’s hardware and did not have the documentation handy? In some cases, the documentation may even be too generic, covering multiple models. In such a circumstance, you can either crack open the server and take a peek inside or, more practically, use a tool like lshw to print out the information you need right on your screen.

Since lshw is not installed by default in Red Hat Enterprise Linux or CentOS, you will need to add a package repository like RPMforge in order to install it. After you have added the repository, simply run:

# yum install lshw

The lshw package is available in the stable Debian repositories, and you can install it with:

# apt-get install lshw

Once installed, simply run the command (preferably as root):

# lshw

You will receive detailed information about your hardware, including OEM information provided by the OEM, details about your motherboard, RAM, CPU, storage, and other internal devices.

You can use a few key options with the command to customize the output:

lshw -html will output to an HTML page

lshw -xml will show an XML tree

lshw -short will show the hardware paths

For more information about lshw, type “man lshw” for the command line or view the online documentation.


Write a Basic Bash Script to Simplify Server Operations

Linux comes with a very powerful tool built into it. It is called the shell. Bash is one version of the shell that is very popular with Linux distributions. If you can learn even basic Bash scripting, you can simplify and automate a lot of tasks you would normally have to manually perform on your server.

To begin creating a Bash script, you will need to use an editor. Assuming you only have command line access, you can use nano, vi, or any number of others. Since this is not a tutorial in text editors, we will not cover how to use any of them. Once you are in the editor, the first line is always the same:


This declares that you will be using bash to run further commands.

The first thing you can try is to make Bash say something:

echo “Hello world!”

Save the file and name it. You should then make the file executable with:

$ chmod a+x myfirstscript

And then you can run it:

$ ./myfirstscript

Besides displaying random text, you can also use Bash scripts to execute multiple commands. For example, if you wanted it to wait 5 second run two scripts and then exit, you would make the script look like this:


# This script will run two commands and then exit

# This is only a test

sleep 5

comand1 /path/to/something

command2 > textfile.txt

exit 0

Now you have created a basic Bash script. For more in-depth Bash scripting, see this tutorial.

Tweaking Linux Server Swappiness for Increased Performance

Swappiness might sound silly, but it is actually a very useful parameter in the Linux kernel that determines how aggressively the kernel will use the swap partition. Linux is usually already well-optimized to use very little swap when physical memory is available. With the swappiness setting, you can increase or decrease this usage.

The default setting on most Linux distributions is 60 out of 100. Most things are still not swapped with this setting. When memory starts to get a little low, however, Linux will start to use swap to ensure that the system does not run out of memory. If a system has no swap, it will invoke the out-of-memory-killer and start killing processes that are taking up valuable memory.

To view your system’s current swappiness setting, type this from the command line:

cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

The output should look something like this:

vm.swappiness = 10

Remember, the lower the swappiness, the less aggressive Linux will be. With a setting of 10, Linux will only resort to swap when absolutely necessary. At “0”, Linux will only swap to avoid the out-of-memory state.

To change the swap value, type:

echo 10 > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

Replace “10” with whatever setting you want. For more information about swappiness and swap in general, see this online tutorial.

3 Things Ways to Troubleshoot BEFORE Rebooting Your Server

If you have grown up using Microsoft Windows on your desktop or laptop, you are probably accustomed to the universal solution to most problems: reboot. When your screen freezes, reboot. If your system gets slow, reboot. That is the standard solution that even tech experts often dish out to common users. As a server administrator, however, you are automatically not a common user. You have a higher standard. The following are some things you can try on a Linux or Unix server before rebooting.

1. Check running processes and kill the offensive one. Many times the problem with your server may be a runaway process. Using “top”, “ps” or some other monitoring tool, you can find out what is causing problems and then use “kill” to remove it.

2. Optimize – If your problem is sluggishness, you might have databases or scripts that are too resource hungry. Try optimizing them. Otherwise, even after you reboot, those same issues will eventually creep up again.

3. Run security checks – It is very possible that if your server is not running well, someone might have breached the security. Run some intrusion detection checks, vulnerability scans and anything else you can do to check your system’s integrity. A reboot may actually exacerbate the problem.

If all else fails and your system has completely locked up, rebooting may be necessary, but it should not be a normal occurrence. After the reboot, check the error logs, update outdated software and try to ensure the problem does not happen again.

How to Add Storage to Your Linux Server

The time may come when you need to add additional storage to your Linux dedicated server. This might be to install a solid state drive, create new databases, back up data, expand your websites or even to add new virtual machines. Regardless of the reason, you would essentially use the same method to make Linux recognize your new disk.

To begin, you need to understand how drives are named. The format basically mirrors the order your drives are connected to the system:

/dev/hda – 1st primary drive

/dev/hdb – 2nd primary drive

…and so on

The first thing you need to do is partition the drive. As root, you need to type fdisk [drive name]. For example, if the drive is /dev/hdb, type:

# fdisk /dev/hdb

From the menu that appears, type, “n” to create a new partition. Then, selected either “e” or “p” for extended or primary partition. Then, enter the number of the partition. Next, press “p” to print the partition table and make sure it looks the way you want. Finally, press “w” to write the changes. WARNING: Once you press “w”, you will destroy whatever was previously occupying that space on the drive.

Finally, you need to format the drive and add it to /etc/fstab if you want it to mount automatically.

# mkfs -t ext4 /dev/hdb1

Replace “ext4” with whatever file system type you prefer.

You will then need to create a mount point. For example:

# mkdir /newdrive

# mount -t ext4 /dev/hdb1 /newdrive

You can add it to fstab by editing /etc/fstab and then entering a line like this:

/dev/hdb1 /newdrive ext4 defaults 1 2

The above is just a generic Linux example of adding a drive. For a CentOS specific tutorial see here. For a Debian tutorial, see here.

Monitor Your Apache Load and Stats with mod_status

Apache HTTP Server is very extensible, allowing users to easily add new modules and thus new features and functionality. One such module that is helpful for monitoring your Apache web server is mod_status. mod_status keeps track of your web server’s load and displays it along with current httpd connections in a web-based interface.

mod_status displays a number of helpful details, including:

  • total number of incoming requests
  • percentage of CPU used by each worker, as well as the overall total
  • number of workers serving requests
  • server uptime
  • number of idle workers
  • total traffic

The output is displayed in plain HTML and is easy to read. You can view a demo of a mod_status output page on the Apache Foundation’s own website.

To enable mod_status in CentOS, edit your Apache configuration file (/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf) and find the line that says:

# LoadModule status_module modules/

Remove the “#” from in front of it to enable it.

Next, scroll down and find the lines that look like this:

# Allow server status reports generated by mod_status,

# with the URL of http://servername/server-status

# Change the “” to match your domain to enable.


#<Location /server-status>

# SetHandler server-status

# Order deny,allow

# Deny from all

# Allow from


Uncomment it and change the “” to the appropriate domain that you want to use. You will need to repeat this step for virtual hosts, setting the correct domain for each in its own configuration file.

Finally, you can add addition information to the status page by enabled ExtendedStatus in httpd.conf.

ExtendedStatus On

For more information about mod_status as well as other Apache modules, see the Apache 2 documentation site.