Understanding Systemd and How to Use It: Part 2

In part one, you learned a little about what systemd is and which Linux distributions plan to use it. In part 2, you will learn how to use systemd to start and stop services. We will use Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS and Fedora in the explanation, but most of it will apply to other […]

4 Common Open Source Licenses

As you enter the world of server management, you are likely going to encounter free and open source software. Even a Windows system administrator these days will likely have to at least run Linux in a virtual machine at some point. Therefore, having a little background knowledge on how Linux and other open source software […]

Differences Between Windows and Linux Servers

Linux is the kernel for many free and open source operating systems. Windows is a proprietary and commercial operating system, but there are many other differences between the two. When you are choosing an OS to run on your server, it is important to know some of the technical differences as well.
1. Access – Linux […]

Monitor Your Apache Load and Stats with mod_status

Apache HTTP Server is very extensible, allowing users to easily add new modules and thus new features and functionality. One such module that is helpful for monitoring your Apache web server is mod_status. mod_status keeps track of your web server’s load and displays it along with current httpd connections in a web-based interface.
mod_status displays a […]

Manage Your Log Files with Logstash

Your dedicated server has lots of logs. Almost every service and program running on a Linux or Unix server has a log file associated with it that includes relevant information about processes, errors and warnings. Sifting through all of those logs can be a pain, especially if you need to review old logs or compare […]

How to backup configuration files on Webmin

Most Linux items that need backing up are stored in user home directories. This usually includes virtual web server directories as well, depending on the web server and settings you are using. One exception to this rule is configuration files. These are stored in /etc and other places. When it comes time to backup, many […]

Storing Web Cache on a RAM Disk: Part Two

In part one, you learned how to create a basic RAM disk and how to make it permanent by creating an entry in /etc/fstab. In this section, you will learn how to configure your Apache to send certain files to your RAM drive.
In this example, we will only send images to the RAM drive. Special […]

Storing Web Cache on a RAM Disk: Part One

One way to speed up your web server is to cache frequently accessed pages and content. This is much faster because dynamic pages do not have to be recreated every time someone accesses them. Instead, the cached HTML files are loaded at a much faster rate. Using a RAM disk, you can make that caching […]

Linux OS Reboot and Service Restart Guide

Your brand new Linux server may seem a bit intimidating at first, but with a little training and practice, you will find it to be very manageable. The following is a quick guide to restarting services and your OS itself.
Reboot – Rebooting your server is quite simple. On the console, you can press CTRL+ALT+Delete. If […]

Is an In-Box OS Upgrade Worth the Risk?

Many Linux operating systems offer the ability to upgrade to a new version of the OS without wiping the hard drive and reinstalling. On a dedicated server, you might call this an in-box upgrade. Generally, a new version of your Linux distribution will include a newer kernel version and newer software. Is such an upgrade […]

PHP Troubleshooting Tips

PHP is a versatile server side scripting language that powers many of the world’s websites. Sometimes, however, things can go wrong. The following are tips to help you troubleshoot your PHP installation.
Scripts do not execute – If you load a PHP page and see the contents of the file rather than the proper […]

5 More Basic Server Security Tips

In a previous post, we highlighted some crucial security measures you should adopt to keep your dedicated server safe. What follows are five more tips that are of equal or even greater importance.
1. Restrict root – Root, the administrator or super user has full control of your server. Ideally, only one person should be […]

Must Have Linux/Unix Server Tools

Once you have deployed and booted up your first Linux server, you may suddenly find yourself in an awkward situation where you are unsure what to do next. There are so many options and so many ways to configure it that you might feel overwhelmed. The following tools are essentials for getting started with a […]

Install LAMP on an Ubuntu Server Quickly and Easily

LAMP is a software stack for servers that refers to Linux Apache MySQL and PHP. It is still one of the most common configurations for servers and web applications, and it is very easy to install on Ubuntu servers. Simply follow these instructions:
The first part of LAMP, namely Linux, should already be installed, so […]

How to Apply Apache Configuration Changes Gracefully

From time to time, you may need to make changes to your Apache HTTP Server configuration file, especially if you are optimizing your web server for performance. Once you have completed changes, they will not come into effect until you restart your web server. This, however, would mean downtime, however briefly, for […]

Even More Apache Performance Tips

We are not quite done yet. Here are four more tips for boosting performance on Apache web servers.
1. Use mod_deflate/gzip – Gzip compression makes smaller file sizes for the content you send to client browsers. The browsers then uncompress and display through a seamless deflating process. The result is better server performance and faster […]

4 Apache Performance Tips

Previously, we revealed some helpful security tips for Apache web servers. Today, we are back with more tips to help boost your Apache performance.
1. Prefer mod_disk_cache over mod_mem_cache – Having a caching module is definitely a good idea for Apache, but you should use mod_disk_cache rather than mod_mem_cache. The latter […]

Stress Test Your Web Server

It is inevitable that high traffic websites will cause a server stress. CPU and memory loads will rise, and it could affect performance. If you are not careful, it could even bring your server and all of its websites to a halt. Therefore, it is imperative that you have at least a general idea of […]

What is a Child Process?

Although it may sound like something out of a parenting handbook or a psychological journal, the term child process actually has nothing to do with human development. If you run a Unix or Linux dedicated server, you have likely encountered child processes without even knowing it. Therefore, it is good to know what child processes […]

Is the End of the Year a Good Time for Major Changes?

As we approach the new year, it might be tempting to make sweeping changes to your organization and to your dedicated server. This is a normal feeling. After all, even in our daily lives, we often start the new year with resolutions (ones that are often too high-reaching and hard to keep). The question posed […]

The Big Truth about Big Data: Part 3

In part one, we defined big data, and in part two, we talked a little about why companies might need big data and how an open source solution might be the best way to go. In this part, we will take a look at one open source solution that is making headlines. It is called […]

How to Reinstall Packages on a Linux Server

Linux has a very unique method of installing applications. Most Linux distributions rely on package management systems that download package archives containing all of the files for an application and then copy them to their correct locations. Once the files are installed, any changes you make to them can affect the functionality of the app. […]

Configure Apache to be Case Insensitive

By default, websites powered by Apache HTTP Server are case sensitive. That means yourwebsite.com/Bunnies will take you to a different page than yourwebsite.com/bunnies. Generally speaking it is a good idea to leave this default configuration as is. There are, however, instances when you might want Apache to be case insensitive. For example, if you have […]

3 Ways to Configure Services to Start at Boot in CentOS: Part 1

On Linux dedicated servers, you can configure services or daemons to start at boot. This means that the programs will start running as soon as your server starts and, ideally, continue to do so as long as the server remains operational. We will look at three distinct ways to configure boot-time services: from the command […]

How to Create an Apache Virtual Host in Webmin

Apache HTTP Server can run in a single instance, one host per server, or as multiple virtual hosts, allowing you to have several websites. Manually setting up virtual hosts can be a bit of a pain, and paying for a commercial control panel may not be in your budget. With the free and open source […]

Back to the Basics #10: Web Applications

Web applications, as the name plainly states, are applications that run on the web rather than on a person’s personal computer or laptop. This makes them extremely versatile, since any device capable of connecting to the web can use them. The methods for developing and deploying web apps vary, but the end result is essentially […]

Back to the Basics #4: Web Server Software

As we continue our overview of the very basics of dedicated server hosting, it is appropriate at this time to look at web servers. Dedicated servers have a wide variety of uses, from application hosting to gaming, but web hosting is one of the most prominent. As the entertainment and business worlds become more integrated […]

Apache Tip #2: Use Configtest to Try Configurations Before Using

The Apache configuration file is deceptively simple. It is just a plain text file filled with mostly plain words. It does not require a registry, hex editing, or any other form of complex configuration. Still, with one misstep, one typo, or one incorrectly placed directive, you can bring your web server to its knees.
Rather than […]

Apache Tip #1: Limit User htaccess Power

With the now common use of dynamic web sites, especially content management systems, your web hosting users may want to use .htaccess files to set Apache web server configuration directives. At times, these directives may be necessary for the proper functionality of their CMS or other dynamic web applications.
It is easy to use .htaccess, and […]

How to Create Custom Error Pages for Nginx

In a previous posts, we have discussed the finer points of creating custom error pages for an Apache web server installation. But what should you do if your web server is Nginx rather than Apache? The process of configuring an error page is somewhat different.
To begin, you will need to create a normal HTML document, […]