The hosting world has been hit with yet another highly publicized server vulnerability. This one affects the ubiquitous shell program GNU Bash and is referred to as Shellshock. Most Linux, BSD and Mac OS X operating systems and variants use Bash or derivatives of it. All Bash versions between versions 1.14 and 4.3 are […]
Linux is the kernel for many free and open source operating systems. Windows is a proprietary and commercial operating system, but there are many other differences between the two. When you are choosing an OS to run on your server, it is important to know some of the technical differences as well.
1. Access – Linux […]
SSH (Secure Shell) is a powerful command-line tool that allows you to securely manage your dedicated server from a remote location. If you have more than one server, however, it can become tedious to have to SSH into each one and make identical changes.
Cluster SSH is a software utility that gives you […]
Linux services or daemons are programs that typically start when the system boots and remain running in the background until the system shuts down. What follows are three distinct ways to manage services RHEL and CentOS servers.
1. chkconfig – You can use this simple command to show current services, enable them, disable them, […]
In part one, we began by changing the root password and then creating an account that will be able to escalate to root privileges when needed. Now, you need to make sure that only that user can become root and not anyone else.
The easiest way to do this is to use the “wheel” group. You […]
CentOS is essentially a free implementation of the open source code from Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Logos and other trademarks aside, CentOS is RHEL at its core without the licensing fees. As such, CentOS has become very popular among server administrators as an ideal Linux server solution. This brief tutorial will explain how to get […]
Most Linux items that need backing up are stored in user home directories. This usually includes virtual web server directories as well, depending on the web server and settings you are using. One exception to this rule is configuration files. These are stored in /etc and other places. When it comes time to backup, many […]
This list is essentially useless. It is useless because no one would actually do the things on the list. Right? I joke of course, but these mistakes are ones you should definitely avoid. Some may seem like common knowledge, but they still happen far too often.
1. Using “password” as a password – For that […]
Your brand new Linux server may seem a bit intimidating at first, but with a little training and practice, you will find it to be very manageable. The following is a quick guide to restarting services and your OS itself.
Reboot – Rebooting your server is quite simple. On the console, you can press CTRL+ALT+Delete. If […]
Ubuntu is well known for being one of the most popular Linux-based desktop operating systems, but it is also become popular for server usage as well. The highly-acclaimed cloud platform OpenStack is built around Ubuntu, and many web hosts now offer it as an option for their VPS and dedicated server clients. This brief tutorial […]
In a previous post, we highlighted some of the benefits of tunneling with SSH. Now, you will learn how to use an SSH tunnel to connect to MySQL remotely. With this method, you will connect to SSH, forwarding all information on port 3306 (the MySQL port) through this encrypted connection.
To get started, connect via SSH: […]
Managing MySQL from the command line is not exactly what one would call quick and easy. Also, there may be times when you do not have immediate access to SSH or have the time to type in multiple commands. Fortunately, phpMyAdmin offers a user-friendly and fast approach to managing your databases. For example, you can […]
Top is a handy little tool that allows you to view frequently updated information about your Linux server from load average to free memory. By default, top refreshes every three seconds, giving you near real-time monitoring of CPU and memory usage, top running processes, and more.
Normally, you need to run top from the console, […]
As we approach the end of the year, now might be a good time to review your security practices and fix any weaknesses in your system. The following are 5 basic security tips to keep your server secure.
1. Secure remote access – Whenever possible limit the amount of remote access users can obtain, and secure […]
Server management is a constantly evolving science. What was once perfectly acceptable technology for a dedicated server may now be considered obsolete. Such is the case with four technologies you should probably avoid on a server you intend to use for hosting websites.
FTP – This is one technology that is still widely used but […]
In an earlier post, we learned how to setup a new virtual machine in VMware Player for the purposes of testing a server implementation. In this post, we will look at some ways you can manipulate VMware Player to emulate your server environment.
One of the first things you will want to do is […]
Under normal circumstances, your MySQL server may only allow applications to connect to it locally, meaning both are running on the same server. If, however, you run MySQL on a separate machine, you will need to configure it to permit remote connections.
(Note: Replace terms in italics with the correct information from your own server)
Ubuntu is the most popular desktop Linux solution, and because of this, many system administrators have become comfortable using it even on the server. Ubuntu does offer a server edition, and it is just as powerful and useful as any of the other Linux server distributions. This brief guide will explain how to install Webmin, […]
Downloading a file from your server should not be tricky. If it is a web-facing file, you can usually download it with your web browser. If it is not, you could use FTP. The problem with both of these options, FTP and HTTP, is that neither is truly secure. If you need to download a […]
Connecting to an SSH server is usually pretty straightforward, and your login credentials are encrypted for security. This makes SSH useful for other types of connections beyond basic shell access. Backup/syncing tools like rsync can use it, and file transfer programs like SCP for SFTP can use SSH technology for secure file transfers.
In part one, […]
Many system administrators have taken a liking to web-based control panels to manage their dedicated servers. While a control panel certainly has its benefits in some situations, there are still some areas of server management where there is no substitute for having shell access. SSH allows you to remotely connect to your server’s shell, providing […]
When you manage a dedicated server, you will almost certainly spend a considerable amount of time working from the command line, probably via SSH. If so, you will encounter Bash or a shell similar to it. While you can accomplish pretty much anything with various commands, you can increase efficiency by learning some of the […]
A Linux dedicated server is all about commands. At some point, you will inevitably need to manage it from SSH (Secure Shell), which means you will be presented with a command line interface. While you may already know some commands, it is nice to see what the server offers as a whole. You can do […]
SSH – Secure Shell allows you to connect to your server as though you were sitting in front of it typing on the console. If you have administrative access, you can completely control your server from SSH. Connections made via SSH are also encrypted and secure.
Apache HTTP Server – The most popular web server software […]
In part 1 of this series, you learned how to use the command line interface (CLI) and a program called chkconfig to configure services to start at boot on a Linux dedicated server. In this part, you will learn how to use the unique Red Hat “Setup” utility and Webmin’s web-based control panel […]
Continued from Part 1. Next, you need to configure Virtualbox to appear on your network. You can do this by using a second virtual network device. Do the following:
Choose “Network” and add a new device if one is not already present by click the green plus.
You should then have a device called vboxnet0 or […]
In some previous posts, you learned how to setup a Virtualbox virtual machine (VM) for the purpose of creating a test server environment. Once you have a functioning test server, you are free to always work on it within the virtual machine, but if you ever want to connect to it remotely, you probably soon […]
When you log in to your dedicated server via SSH and run the ls command to list your files, you may notice that directories and files are color-coded. Directories are probably dark blue along with light blue symbolic links, and bright green executables. For some users, especially those who prefer a dark or even black […]
On most days, installing software will be easy. You need only login to your server and use its package manager to install the latest applications. On other days, it may be a bit more difficult, particularly if you need to use experimental software that is not yet in your operating system’s package repositories. One common […]
Many of today’s dedicated servers run Linux distributions (such as CentOS) or Unix-like operating systems (such as FreeBSD). Therefore, it is very important to be familiar with Unix commands and how to get the most out of them, even if you spend most of your time managing your server from the comfort of a web-based […]